This study examined the level of parental resistance to the use of smartphones in schools, as well as the predictors and the factors underlying parental resistance. Data was collected from a sample of 220 parents of elementary and secondary school students who completed an online questionnaire. The participants ranked four different factors for resisting and rejecting the use of smartphones in schools: social, environmental, economic and pedagogical. Parents’ actual resistance level was also measured, from “no resistance”, through “passive resistance”, to “active resistance”. Furthermore, the study examined the association between parental resistance and four parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved, as well as associations with demographic and socioeconomic variables. About two-thirds of the parents expressed resistance toward the use of smartphones in school, and more than half of them expressed active resistance to such use. Social and economic factors were reported to underlie resistance to the use of smartphones in school to a great extent, whereas pedagogical resistance factor was reported to a low extent in all parental resistance levels Nevertheless, pedagogical and social resistance factors predicted a high level of parental resistance. Authoritative parenting style was found to be a negative predictor of parental resistance. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to educational theory and the challenges of policy-makers who cope with parental resistance towards the integration of smartphones in school learning.
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