Water Vapor Density Retrieval Studies Using Commercial Millimeter-Wave Links at 38 GHz and E-Band

Congzheng Han, Guiyang Su, Lei Bao, Hagit Messer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We study the performance of water vapor monitoring using commercial millimeter-wave backhaul links from the fifth-generation cellular networks and smart cities. A 38 GHz link and an E-band link located in Gothenburg, Sweden, are used for analysis. One end of these two backhaul links is installed at the same site. The water vapor density (WVD) over a one-month period from 13 June 2017 to 13 July 2017 is calculated based on the data from these microwave links with different frequencies. The meteorological data used for analysis is from a weather station installed at the site where the microwave links are installed, as well as from a nearby weather station operated by Swedish Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (SMHI). A pre-processing step is applied to the raw link attenuation measurement for improving the estimation accuracy. We retrieved water vapor density value from two millimeter-wave links, and it is in good agreement with the water vapor density calculated by weather stations. The source of interference, such as misalignment, humidity source below the link, location, and altitude of weather stations, can contribute to estimation errors and needs to be carefully considered when using microwave link to retrieve water vapor density.

Original languageEnglish
Article number946
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • 5G
  • E-band
  • Microwave links
  • Millimeter-wave link
  • Water vapor monitoring technique


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