Toward a unifying model of identification with groups: Integrating theoretical perspectives

Sonia Roccas, Lilach Sagiv, Shalom Schwartz, Nir Halevy, Roy Eidelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Building on the contributions of diverse theoretical approaches, the authors present a multidimensional model of group identification. Integrating conceptions from the social identity perspective with those from research on individualism-collectivism, nationalism- patriotism, and identification with organizations, we propose four conceptually distinct modes of identification: importance (how much I view the group as part of who I am), commitment (how much I want to benefit the group), superiority (how much I view my group as superior to other groups), and deference (how much I honor, revere, and submit to the group's norms, symbols, and leaders). We present an instrument for assessing the four modes of identification and review initial empirical findings that validate the proposed model and show its utility in understanding antecedents and consequences of identification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-306
Number of pages27
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Review
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2008


  • Group processes
  • Identity
  • Self
  • Social identity


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