The grand canonical Multiverse and the small cosmological constant

Ido Ben-Dayan, Merav Hadad, Amir Michaelis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We consider the Multiverse as an ensemble of universes. Using standard statistical physics analysis we get that the Cosmological Constant (CC) is exponentially small. The small and finite CC is achieved without any anthropic reasoning. We then quantize the CC. The quantization allows a precise summation of the possible contributions and using the measured value of the CC yields a prediction on the temperature of the Multiverse that we define. Furthermore, quantization allows the interpretation of a single Universe as a superposition of different eigenstates with different energy levels rather than the existence of an actual Multiverse.

Original languageEnglish
Article number052
JournalJournal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements. – This work has been supported by grants from Lars Hierta Memorial Foundation, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (KVA), IAS postgraduate grant, Bjur-zons travel scholarship and Leksand Municipal Scholarship to Åsa Frisk, and the Swedish Research Council (VR) and SYNTHESYS to Jan Ove R. Ebbestad. Funding from VR and Magnus Bergwalls Stiftelse through Lars Holmer, Uppsala University, is acknowledged. Vivianne Berg-Madsen has been most helpful supplying material from the collections of the Museum of Evolution in Uppsala (PMU). Christina Franzén and Jonas Hagström kindly provided us with information and material from the collections of the Swedish Natural History Museum (NRM) in Stockholm. Linda Wickström supplied the material from the collections of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU). Franz-Josef Lindemann at the Paleontological Museum in Oslo, Henning Scholz at the Humboldt Museum in Berlin, and Radvan Horn˘ at the National Museum in Prague are thanked for help with collections in their care. Länsstyrelsen in Dalarna gave us permission to examine the type locality in Fjäcka. The Paleobiology Database is acknowledged. Linguistic support from Christian Atkins, Uppsala University, on the English is gratefully acknowledged. Åsa Frisk wishes to thank Maurits Lindström, Stockholm University, for initiating her ongoing PhD project. Comments and improvements by the reviewers R.J. Horn˘, J.S. Peel and D.M. Rohr, and guest-editor R. Kumpulainen are greatly acknowledged. This paper is a contribution to the IGCP Project 503 “Ordovician Palaeogeography and Palaeoclimate”.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab.


  • dark energy theory
  • eternal universe
  • initial conditions


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