Embryonic and posthatch long-term exposure to the odor of 2-methoxy-3-isobutyl-pyrazine (2M3IP) was examined for its potential physiological consequences as reflected in changes in BW and organ weights in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). Experiments were run from Day 1 of incubation to the age of 3 wk with a total of 360 fertile chicken eggs. The experimental design consisted of four treatment groups: PP chicks were exposed to 2M3IP during both incubation and posthatch rearing; PC chicks were exposed to 2M3IP during incubation only; CP chicks were exposed to 2M3IP during rearing period only; CC control chicks were not exposed to 2M3IP. Chicks were weighed immediately after hatch and at 3 wk of age, when they were necropsied. Various organs (thyroid, adrenal, testes, comb, liver, spleen, abdominal fat, and the bursa of Fabricius) were removed and weighed. Body weights of both sexes in the PP group were reduced. This reduction was significant in males relative to both CP and CC groups and in females only relative to the CP group. Effects of 2M3IP exposure on the examined organs were as follows: in males, adrenal gland weight significantly increased in the PP group vs all other groups. No weight differences were found between the other inspected organs among the four treatments. In females, comb weight significantly decreased compared with the rest of the groups when 2M3IP exposure occurred during incubation (PC). Further investigation is needed to study the mechanisms that underlie the differential effects of pyrazine odor on male and female chicks.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was financially supported by the Israeli Ministry of Science. The authors wish to thank E. Arnon for her skillful technical assistance.
- Long-term exposure