The cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and the 21-cm line fluctuations are powerful probes of cosmological reionization. We study how the cross-correlation between the CMB polarization (E modes) and the 21-cm line fluctuations can be used to gain further understanding of the reionization history, within the framework of inhomogeneous reionization. Since the E-mode polarization reflects the amplitude of the quadrupole component of the CMB temperature fluctuations, the angular power spectrum of the cross-correlation exhibits oscillations at all multipoles. The first peak of the power spectrum appears at the scale corresponding to the quadrupole at the redshift, which is probed by the 21-cm line fluctuations. The peak reaches its maximum value in redshift when the average ionization fraction of the universe is about half. On the other hand, on small scales, there is a damping that depends on the duration of reionization. Thus, the cross-correlation between the CMB polarization and the 21-cm line fluctuations has the potential to accurately constrain the epoch and the duration of reionization.
- Cosmology: theory
- Large-scale structure of Universe