It is shown that spontaneous breaking of O(2) symmetry in a background metric of constant curvature R is accompanied by appearance of a Goldstone mode with mass squared of - 1 2R. If the gravitational field is coupled dynamically, the situation is quite similar and when spontaneous breaking of the O(2) symmetry takes place, a massive Goldstone mode appears in the antide Sitter background. A modified lagrangian yields a massless Goldstone mode and a flat background. If the O(2) symmetry is promoted to be local, the Higgs mechanism is responsible for the scalar and gauge field masses which include gravitational contributions.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Nuclear Physics B|
|State||Published - 4 Aug 1986|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
* Supported in part by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. * We use the conventions: R = g~R"~,,,~, R~x~,~= O~F~x .... and also use ~ for Newton's constant 8';"r/m2 p lanck.