Rehydroxylation of clay minerals and hydration in Bronze and Iron Age pottery from the 'Land of Geshur' (east of the Sea of Galilee), were investigated by IR thermospectrometry. A weak OH band, which resembles those in smectite or illite, exists in most samples, but it is masked by the water bands at lower temperature. Two types of transformation of clay minerals occur during firing of raw materials, reversible and nonreversible dehydroxylation, taking place at a relatively low and high firing temperatures, respectively. Clay minerals rehydroxylate and reconstruct after relatively higher firing temperatures in noncalcareous raw materials than in calcareous ones. These processes take place after higher temperatures in cooking pots made from the former type of raw material as compared with storage and table-ware vessels made from the latter. The absorbed water in the pottery is mainly connected with the dominant X-ray amorphous matter formed by the firing process.