POLAR - I: linking the 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization to galaxy formation

Qing Bo Ma, Raghunath Ghara, Benedetta Ciardi, Ilian T. Iliev, Léon V.E. Koopmans, Garrelt Mellema, Rajesh Mondal, Saleem Zaroubi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To self-consistently model galactic properties, reionization of the intergalactic medium, and the associated 21-cm signal, we have developed the algorithm POLAR by integrating the one-dimensional radiative transfer code GRIZZLY with the semi-analytical galaxy formation code L-GALAXIES 2020. Our proof-of-concept results are consistent with observations of the star formation rate history, UV luminosity function, and the CMB Thomson scattering optical depth. We then investigate how different galaxy formation models affect UV luminosity functions and 21-cm power spectra, and find that while the former are most sensitive to the parameters describing the merger of haloes, the latter have a stronger dependence on the supernovae feedback parameters, and both are affected by the escape fraction model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3284-3297
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank Rob Yates for his helpful insight into L-GALAXIES 2020, and an anonymous referee for her/his comments. QM is supported by the National SKA Program of China (grant No. 2020SKA0110402), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 12263002, 11903010), Science and Technology Fund of Guizhou Province (Grant No. [2020]1Y020), and GZNU 2019 Special projects of training new academics and innovation exploration. RG and SZ acknowledge support grant no. 255/18 from the Israel Science Foundation. LVEK acknowledges the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No. 884760, 'CoDEX'.). GM acknowledges support by Swedish Research Council grant 2020-04691. RM is supported by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities & Council for Higher Education Excellence Fellowship Program for International Postdoctoral Researchers. The tools for bibliographic research are offered by the NASA Astrophysics Data Systems and by the JSTOR archive.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.


  • dark ages, reionization, first stars
  • galaxies: formation
  • methods: numerical


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