POLAR - I: linking the 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization to galaxy formation

Qing Bo Ma, Raghunath Ghara, Benedetta Ciardi, Ilian T. Iliev, Léon V.E. Koopmans, Garrelt Mellema, Rajesh Mondal, Saleem Zaroubi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To self-consistently model galactic properties, reionization of the intergalactic medium, and the associated 21-cm signal, we have developed the algorithm POLAR by integrating the one-dimensional radiative transfer code GRIZZLY with the semi-analytical galaxy formation code L-GALAXIES 2020. Our proof-of-concept results are consistent with observations of the star formation rate history, UV luminosity function, and the CMB Thomson scattering optical depth. We then investigate how different galaxy formation models affect UV luminosity functions and 21-cm power spectra, and find that while the former are most sensitive to the parameters describing the merger of haloes, the latter have a stronger dependence on the supernovae feedback parameters, and both are affected by the escape fraction model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3284-3297
Number of pages14
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society.


  • dark ages, reionization, first stars
  • galaxies: formation
  • methods: numerical


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