The Early Bronze Age (EBA) fortified town of Leviah was destroyed in a violent conflagration that was most manifest in the eastern gate area. Along with extensive burnt and collapsed remains of the fortifications at this point, were hundreds of sling-stones and some mace heads, indicating that a ferocious battle had taken place, along with two dozen miniature bowls. They were found in clear connection with the fortified gate complex. While quite rare in southern Levant settlement strata during the Early Bronze Age, the large number of such vessels at Leviah, and above all their secure context, may hint at their role as votive objects that were believed to symbolically support the town defenses. The current article explores the symbolic and ideological meaning of miniature votive vessels and their relation to the defenses of Leviah in the face of an approaching danger.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported byThe Open University of Israel’s Research Fund (grant no. 31016). This support is gratefully acknowledged. The assistance of Galina Kaz is also highly acknowledged.
- Leviah fortified settlement
- Symbolic defense
- Violent destruction
- Votive bowls