Interactive unawareness

Aviad Heifetz, Martin Meier, Burkhard C. Schipper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The standard state-spaces of asymmetric information preclude non-trivial forms of unawareness (Modica and Rustichini (Theory Decision 37 (1994) 107-124); Dekel, Lipman and Rustichini (Econometrica 66 (1998) 159-173)). We introduce a generalized state-space model that allows for non-trivial unawareness among several individuals, and which satisfies strong properties of knowledge as well as all the desiderata on unawareness proposed this far in the literature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-94
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Economic Theory
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
∗Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: (A. Heifetz), (M. Meier), (B.C. Schipper). 1 Financial support during the preparation of earlier drafts from the European Union via a Marie-Curie Individual Fellowship (HPMF-2002-02073) is gratefully acknowledged. 2Financial support by the DFG and DAAD is gratefully acknowledged.


  • Awareness
  • Bounded perception
  • Interactive epistemology
  • Knowledge
  • Speculative trade
  • Unawareness


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