To fully master a scaled-up combustion synthesis of nanoparticles toward a wide library of materials with tailored functionalities, a detailed understanding of the underlying kinetic mechanism is required. In this respect, flame synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles is a model case, being one of the better understood systems and guiding the way how other material synthesis systems could be advanced. In this mini-review, we highlight, on the example of an iron oxide system, an approach combining laser spectroscopy and mass spectrometry with detailed simulations. The experiments deliver information on time-temperature history and concentration field data for gas-phase species and condensable matter under well-defined conditions. The simulations, which can be considered as in silico experiments, combining detailed kinetic modeling with computational fluid dynamics, serve both for mechanism validation via comparison to experimental observables as well as for shedding light on quantities inaccessible by experiments. This approach shed light on precursor decomposition, initial stages of iron oxide particle formation, and precursor role in flame inhibition and provided insights into the effect of temperature-residence time history on nanoparticle formation, properties, and flame structure.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Research Group FOR 2284 (Project 262219004), the Priority Program SPP 1980 (Project 375692188), and the Israel Science Foundation (ISF, Grant 2187/19). The authors especially acknowledge Hartmut Wiggers, Tina Kasper, Yasin Karakaya, Sebastian Peukert, and Peter Fjodorow for fruitful discussions.