The source of air pollution must be identified to select the appropriate monitoring activities and remedial measures. The present case study illustrates how analyses of (1) regional-scale synoptics and air mass trajectories, (2) local-scale atmospheric measurements (wind direction and speed, air temperature, dust load, sulfur and nitrogen oxide concentrations in the air, rain amount, and intensity) and (3) chemical and isotopic compositions of rainwater from 46 rain events, collected in the coastal city of Ashdod, Israel, were used to identify the various sources contributing to rainwater salts and contaminants and their timing. Rainwater affected by the Mediterranean Sea was characterized by a large marine fraction of salts, high chloride concentrations, and low values of δ18O and δD. These rain events were associated with the Cyprus Low system, which typically prevails in midwinter. Rainwater affected by continental sources had a small contribution of marine salts, high bicarbonate and calcium concentrations, and high values of δ18O and δD. These rains were related to continental trajectories from the Red Sea and north African coast prevailing during the fall and spring. Rainwater affected by anthropogenic sources was characterized by low marine fraction, high sulfate concentrations, and low values of δ 34S. Whereas remote anthropogenic source was associated with the Red Sea trough system and were characterized by high nitrate concentrations (representing desert dust), the local anthropogenic source was characterized by high air concentrations of sulfur oxides at the local monitoring stations and high potassium and low nitrate concentrations. The identification of local anthropogenic source suggests that measures taken to reduce emissions from local oil refineries and power stations are likely to reduce the overall air pollution in the study area.