Improved versions of Tardos' fingerprinting scheme

Oded Blayer, Tamir Tassa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We study the Tardos' probabilistic fingerprinting scheme and show that its codeword length may be shortened by a factor of approximately 4. We achieve this by retracing Tardos' analysis of the scheme and extracting from it all constants that were arbitrarily selected. We replace those constants with parameters and derive a set of inequalities that those parameters must satisfy so that the desired security properties of the scheme still hold. Then we look for a solution of those inequalities in which the parameter that governs the codeword length is minimal. A further reduction in the codeword length is achieved by decoupling the error probability of falsely accusing innocent users from the error probability of missing all colluding pirates. Finally, we simulate the Tardos scheme and show that, in practice, one may use codewords that are shorter than those in the original Tardos scheme by a factor of at least 16.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-103
Number of pages25
JournalDesigns, Codes, and Cryptography
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Fingerprinting
  • Traitor tracing schemes
  • Watermarking


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