God willing: Im Yirzòeh Hashem-In Sha Allah

Raphael Jospe, Yonatan Milo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Except for three passages in the New Testament, the earliest usage in Jewish literature of the phrase God willing (or: if God wills) dates from the Islamic period. The Hebrew im yirzòeh Hashem reflects the Arabic in sha Allah, but without the underlying Islamic occasionalist denial of natural causality and emphasis on divine omnipotence and decree (al-qadar) propounded by Al-Ghazali and Ash'arite Kalam. The Hebrew term merely reflects belief in divine providence and not occasionalism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-27
Number of pages27
JournalReview of Rabbinic Judaism
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Al-Ghazali
  • God willing
  • Im yirzòeh Hashem
  • In sha Allah
  • Islam
  • Occasionalism


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