Galactic halo cusp-core: Tidal compression in mergers

Avishai Dekel, Jonathan Devor, Guy Hetzroni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We explain in simple terms how the build-up of dark haloes by merging compact satellites, as in the cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, inevitably leads to an inner cusp of density profile ρ α r with α ≳ 1, as seen in cosmological N-body simulations. A flatter halo core with α < 1 exerts on the satellites tidal compression in all directions, which prevents the deposit of stripped satellite material in the core region. This makes the satellite orbits decay from the radius where α ∼ 1 to the halo centre with no local tidal mass transfer, and thus causes a rapid steepening of the inner profile to α > 1. These tidal effects, the resultant steepening of the profile to a cusp, and the stability of this cusp to tandem mergers with compact satellites are demonstrated using N-body simulations. The transition at α ∼ 1 is then addressed using toy models in the limiting cases of impulse and adiabatic approximations and using tidal radii for satellites on radial and circular orbits. In an associated paper, we address the subsequent slow convergence from either side to an asymptotic stable cusp with α ≳ 1. Our analysis thus implies that an inner cusp is enforced when small haloes are typically more compact than larger haloes, as in the CDM scenario, such that enough satellite material makes it intact into the inner halo and is deposited there. We conclude that a necessary condition for maintaining a flat core, as indicated by observations, is that the inner regions of the CDM satellite haloes be puffed up by about 50 per cent such that when they merge into a larger halo they would be disrupted outside the halo core. This puffing up could be due to baryonic feedback processes in small haloes, which may be stimulated by the tidal compression in the halo cores.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)326-342
Number of pages17
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 May 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Cosmology: theory
  • Dark matter
  • Galaxies: formation
  • Galaxies: haloes
  • Galaxies: interactions
  • Galaxies: structure


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