Facilitating Emergency Remote K-12 Teaching in Computing-Enhanced Virtual Learning Environments During COVID-19 Pandemic - Blessing or Curse?

Tamar Shamir-Inbal, Ina Blau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study explored teacher experience in leading Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) in K-12 and conducting blended synchronous and asynchronous instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study’s purpose was to understand the pedagogical, technological, and organizational challenges and benefits of computing-enhanced digital learning environments, and to explore teachers' pedagogical strategies. This study employed a qualitative research paradigm using nation-wide, online samples, which included 133 elementary and secondary school teachers from Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking schools in Israel. Participants were asked to share their perspectives and experiences of ERT through open-ended questions in an online questionnaire. The bottom-up analysis of the data, based on the Grounded Theory approach, yielded 1,822 statements reflecting teachers' perceptions of pedagogical, technological, and organizational challenges (N = 580) and benefits of ERT (N = 827). The analysis also revealed a variety of pedagogical distance learning strategies used by teachers (N = 415). The study raises the need to turn a curse into a blessing by incorporating the experience of remote technology-enhanced learning and online activities into the school agenda on a regular basis. Thus, teachers and students would develop important digital competencies and be prepared for the next emergency event. The implications of our findings for educational theory and practice of educational computing are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1243-1271
Number of pages29
JournalJournal of Educational Computing Research
Issue number7
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study was supported by the Research Authority Foundation, The Open University of Israel.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.


  • K-12 in COVID-19 pandemic
  • distance learning
  • elementary and secondary schools
  • emergency remote teaching – ERT
  • pedagogical strategies
  • teachers


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