Don't patronize me: Media-by and mediafor minorities

Dan Caspi, Nelly Elias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The proposed paradigm aims at differentiating between two prototypes of ethnic minority media - media-for and media-by minorities - according to a series of twelve criteria clustered into three major categories. The first category comprises four criteria addressing medium initiative and design, i.e. the initiative behind the medium establishment, the nature of its ownership and the identity of its personnel and management. The second offers five criteria for evaluating medium functioning, i.e. the medium's agenda, its attitude towards the majority versus the country of origin, professional reference group and the minority's access to the medium and representation therein. The third category consists of three types of medium control - political, economic and public. As shown, the distinction between the two prototypes has numerous theoretical and practical implications concerning the minority media's performance in mediating between the minority and the majority, as well as their differential ability to guarantee the minority self-expression and empowerment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-82
Number of pages21
JournalEthnic and Racial Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The preparation of this article was partially supported by the Hubert Burda Center for Innovative Communications. Special gratitude is due to the two anonymous readers for their constructive comments and the insights we have included in the text.


  • Ethnic minorities
  • Immigrants
  • Israel
  • Media-by
  • Media-for
  • Minority media


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