The study examined Friendship Qualities among 39 children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and 17 children without ADHD, studying in mainstreamed classes, and compared their self-reports with their parents' and teachers' perceptions. Although the literature has described ADHD children as having social difficulties, a higher rate of social difficulties and being at higher risk for peer rejection, the results of this study showed that the number of friends for children with ADHD was not significantly lower and their self-reported activities during leisure time were as varied as those of their peers without ADHD. Results also indicated that children with ADHD did not express more intense feelings of loneliness, nor did they report on continuous problems in their social relationships as compared to children without ADHD. Significant differences were obtained regarding the perceived characteristics of 'a close friend', and regarding places to meet friends. Comparing adults' and children's perceptions indicated that parents and teachers of children with ADHD perceived their children's loneliness as higher than parents and teachers of the control group. The findings highlight the need for parents and teachers to develop awareness and involvement in children's friendship relationships.
- Parents' and teachers' perceptions
- Peer relationships