A framework for operator– workstation interaction in Industry 4.0

Maya Golan, Yuval Cohen, Gonen Singer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We draw on cognitive and behavioural theories and on the artificial intelligence literature in order to propose a framework of future operator – workstation interaction in the ‘Industry 4.0’ era. We name the proposed framework ‘Operator – Workstation Interaction 4.0’. The latter’s capabilities permit an adaptive, ongoing interaction that aims to improve operator safety, performance, well-being, and satisfaction as well as the factory’s production measures. The framework is composed of three subsystems: (1) the observation subsystem which observes the operator and the processes occurring in the workstation, (2) the analysis subsystem which generates understanding and implications of the observations output, (3) the reaction subsystem which determines if and how to respond. The paper describes these elements and illustrate them using an example of a fatigued worker. The contributions, implications, and limitations of the proposed framework are discussed, and future research directions are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2421-2432
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Production Research
Issue number8
StatePublished - 17 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Industry 4.0
  • OWI 4.0
  • Operator 4.0
  • affective computing
  • cognitive manufacturing
  • human-machine interaction


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