A critical analysis of transactional distance theory

Paul Gorsky, Avner Caspi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This investigation reviews published empirical studies that attempted to support or to validate transactional
distance theory (Moore, 1993). It was found that either data only partially supported the theory or, that if they
apparently did so, the studies lacked reliability, construct validity, or both. It was concluded that the basic
propositions of transactional distance theory were neither supported nor validated by empirical research findings. Furthermore, it was found that the theory may be reduced to a single proposition (as the amount of dialogue increases, transactional distance decreases) and that this proposition may be construed as a tautology.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1-11
JournalQuarterly Review of Distance Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2005


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