A canonical model for interactive unawareness

Aviad Heifetz, Martin Meier, Burkhard C. Schipper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Heifetz, Meier and Schipper [Heifetz, A., Meier, M., Schipper, B.C., 2006a. Interactive unawareness, J. Econ. Theory 130, 78-94; Heifetz, A., Meier, M., Schipper, B.C., 2006b. Unawareness, beliefs and games. Mimeo] introduced unawareness structures. These are generalized state-space models that allow for non-trivial unawareness among several individuals and strong properties of knowledge. We show that a canonical unawareness structure arises naturally if states consist of maximally consistent sets of formulas in an appropriate axiom system. As a corollary, we obtain a strong soundness and completeness theorem for this axiom system with respect to the class of unawareness structures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)304-324
Number of pages21
JournalGames and Economic Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Keywords: Unawareness; Awareness; Knowledge; Interactive epistemology; Modal logic; Lack of conception; Bounded perception * Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: aviadhe@openu.ac.il (A. Heifetz), martin.meier@uab.es (M. Meier), bcschipper@ucdavis.edu (B.C. Schipper). 1 Martin acknowledges financial support from the European Union via a Marie-Curie Individual Fellowship (HPMF-2002-02073), the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia via a Ramon y Cajal Fellowship, Research Grant SEJ2004-07861 as well as Barcelona Economics (XREA) and the Fundación Ramón Areces. 2 Burkhard received financial support from the NSF SES-0647811, the DFG SFB/TR 15 and the Minerva Stiftung.


  • Awareness
  • Bounded perception
  • Interactive epistemology
  • Knowledge
  • Lack of conception
  • Modal logic
  • Unawareness


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